Distribution of freshwater carideans in Tanega-shima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan was investigated in 2015-2016. Eight species of atyid shrimps (Atyopsis spinipes, Caridina grandirostris, C. laoagensis, C. leucosticta, C. multidentata, C. typus, C. serratirostris and Paratya compressa) and five species of palaemonid prawns (Macrobrachium australe, M. formosense, M. japonicum, M. lar and Palaemon paucidens B type) were collected. Four collected species of A. spinipes, C. laoagensis, P. compressa and M. lar were the first records in Tanega-shima Island. The number of species was more abundant in rivers along the east coast than the west coast. This difference was thought to be due to the Kuroshio Current which flows close to the east coast.