Distribution of freshwater carideans in Kuro-shima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan was investigated in 2017. One species of atyid shrimp (Caridina typus) and four species of palaemonid prawns (Macrobrachium australe, M. formosense, M. japonicum and M. lar) were collected. In addition, two crabs (Geothelphusa mishima and Varuna litterata) and a goby (Rhinogobius brunneus) were collected. These are diadromous species except for G. mishima. The number of species of diadromous carideans in Kuro-shima Island was less than for similar surveys in Satsuma Peninsula, Ohsumi Peninsula, Yaku-shima Island and Tanega-shima Island. This difference is thought to be due to rivers in Kuro-shima Island being small and the presence of waterfalls blocking the upstream migration of diadromous carideans.